Your success in EC-Council 312-50v12 is our sole target and we develop all our 312-50v12 braindumps in a way that facilitates the attainment of this target. Not only is our 312-50v12 study material the best you can find, it is also the most detailed and the most updated. 312-50v12 Practice Exams for EC-Council 312-50v12 are written to the highest standards of technical accuracy.
When a user encrypts plaintext with PGP, PGP first compresses the plaintext. The session key works with a very secure, fast conventional encryption algorithm to encrypt the plaintext; the result is ciphertext. Once the data is encrypted, the session key is then encrypted to the recipient's public key https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pretty_Good_Privacy Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication. PGP is used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting texts, emails, files, directories, and whole disk partitions and to increase the security of e-mail communications.
PGP encryption uses a serial combination of hashing, data compression, symmetric-key cryptography, and finally public-key cryptography; each step uses one of several supported algorithms. Each public key is bound to a username or an e-mail address.
Public key encryption uses two different keys. One key is used to encrypt the information and the other is used to decrypt the information. Sometimes this is referred to as asymmetric encryption because two keys are required to make the system and/or process work securely. One key is known as the public key and should be shared by the owner with anyone who will be securely communicating with the key owner. However, the owner’s secret key is not to be shared and considered a private key. If the private key is shared with unauthorized recipients, the encryption mechanisms protecting the information must be considered compromised.
A pharming attacker tries to send a web site’s traffic to a faux website controlled by the offender, typically for the aim of collection sensitive data from victims or putting in malware on their machines. Attacker tend to specialize in making look-alike ecommerce and digital banking websites to reap credentials and payment card data.
Though they share similar goals, pharming uses a special technique from phishing. “Pharming attacker are targeted on manipulating a system, instead of tricking people into reaching to a dangerous web site,” explains David Emm, principal security man of science at Kaspersky. “When either a phishing or pharming attacker is completed by a criminal, they need a similar driving issue to induce victims onto a corrupt location, however the mechanisms during which this is often undertaken are completely different.”
In a Windows network, nongovernmental organization (New Technology) local area network Manager (NTLM) could be a suite of Microsoft security protocols supposed to produce authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.NTLM is that the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft local area network Manager (LANMAN), Associate in Nursing older Microsoft product. The NTLM protocol suite is enforced in an exceedingly Security Support supplier, which mixes the local area network Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in an exceedingly single package. whether or not these protocols area unit used or will be used on a system is ruled by cluster Policy settings, that totally different|completely different} versions of Windows have different default settings. NTLM passwords area unit thought-about weak as a result of they will be brute-forced very simply with fashionable hardware.
NTLM could be a challenge-response authentication protocol that uses 3 messages to authenticate a consumer in an exceedingly affiliation orientating setting (connectionless is similar), and a fourth extra message if integrity is desired.
First, the consumer establishes a network path to the server and sends a NEGOTIATE_MESSAGE advertising its capabilities.
Next, the server responds with CHALLENGE_MESSAGE that is employed to determine the identity of the consumer. Finally, the consumer responds to the challenge with Associate in Nursing AUTHENTICATE_MESSAGE.
The NTLM protocol uses one or each of 2 hashed word values, each of that are keep on the server (or domain controller), and that through a scarcity of seasoning area unit word equivalent, that means that if you grab the hash price from the server, you’ll evidence while not knowing the particular word. the 2 area unit the lm Hash (a DES-based operate applied to the primary fourteen chars of the word born-again to the standard eight bit laptop charset for the language), and also the nt Hash (MD4 of the insufficient endian UTF-16 Unicode password). each hash values area unit sixteen bytes (128 bits) every.
The NTLM protocol additionally uses one among 2 a method functions, looking on the NTLM version.
National Trust LanMan and NTLM version one use the DES primarily based LanMan a method operate (LMOWF), whereas National TrustLMv2 uses the NT MD4 primarily based a method operate (NTOWF).
Kernel-mode rootkits run with the best operating system privileges (Ring 0) by adding code or replacement parts of the core operating system, as well as each the kernel and associated device drivers. Most operative systems support kernel-mode device drivers, that execute with a similar privileges because the software itself. As such, several kernel-mode rootkits square measure developed as device drivers or loadable modules, like loadable kernel modules in Linux or device drivers in Microsoft Windows. This category of rootkit has unrestricted security access, however is tougher to jot down. The quality makes bugs common, and any bugs in code operative at the kernel level could seriously impact system stability, resulting in discovery of the rootkit. one amongst the primary wide familiar kernel rootkits was developed for Windows NT four.0 and discharged in Phrack magazine in 1999 by Greg Hoglund. Kernel rootkits is particularly tough to observe and take away as a result of they operate at a similar security level because the software itself, and square measure therefore able to intercept or subvert the foremost sure software operations. Any package, like antivirus package, running on the compromised system is equally vulnerable. during this scenario, no a part of the system is sure.
Which of the following attacks can be performed by exploiting the above vulnerability?
DROWN is a serious vulnerability that affects HTTPS and other services that deem SSL and TLS, someof the essential cryptographic protocols for net security. These protocols allow everyone on the netto browse the net, use email, look on-line, and send instant messages while not third-parties beingable to browse the communication.
DROWN allows attackers to break the encryption and read or steal sensitive communications, as well as passwords, credit card numbers, trade secrets, or financial data. At the time of public disclosure on March 2016, our measurements indicated thirty third of all HTTPS servers were vulnerable to the attack. fortuitously, the vulnerability is much less prevalent currently. As of 2019, SSL Labs estimates that one.2% of HTTPS servers are vulnerable.
What will the attackers gain?
Any communication between users and the server. This typically includes, however isn’t limited to, usernames and passwords, credit card numbers, emails, instant messages, and sensitive documents. under some common scenarios, an attacker can also impersonate a secure web site and intercept or change the content the user sees.
Who is vulnerable?
Websites, mail servers, and other TLS-dependent services are in danger for the DROWN attack. At the time of public disclosure, many popular sites were affected. we used Internet-wide scanning to live how many sites are vulnerable:
Operators of vulnerable servers got to take action. there’s nothing practical that browsers or endusers will do on their own to protect against this attack. Is my site vulnerable?
Modern servers and shoppers use the TLS encryption protocol. However, because of misconfigurations, several servers also still support SSLv2, a 1990s-era precursor to TLS. This support did not matter in practice, since no up-to-date clients really use SSLv2. Therefore, despite the fact that SSLv2 is thought to be badly insecure, until now, simply supporting SSLv2 wasn’t thought of a security problem, is a clients never used it.
DROWN shows that merely supporting SSLv2 may be a threat to fashionable servers and clients. It modern associate degree attacker to modern fashionable TLS connections between up-to-date clients and servers by sending probes to a server that supports SSLv2 and uses the same private key.
A server is vulnerable to DROWN if:
It allows SSLv2 connections. This is surprisingly common, due to misconfiguration and inappropriate default settings. Its private key is used on any other serverthat allows SSLv2 connections, even for another protocol.
Many companies reuse the same certificate and key on their web and email servers, for instance. In this case, if the email server supports SSLv2 and the web server does not, an attacker can take advantage of the email server to break TLS connections to the web server.
How do I protect my server?
To protect against DROWN, server operators need to ensure that their private keys software used anyplace with server computer code that enables SSLv2 connections. This includes net servers, SMTP servers, IMAP and POP servers, and the other software that supports SSL/TLS.
Disabling SSLv2 is difficult and depends on the particular server software. we offer instructions here for many common products:
OpenSSL: OpenSSL may be a science library employed in several server merchandise. For users of OpenSSL, the simplest and recommended solution is to upgrade to a recent OpenSSL version. OpenSSL 1.0.2 users ought to upgrade to 1.0.2g. OpenSSL 1.0.1 users ought to upgrade to one.0.1s.
Users of older OpenSSL versions ought to upgrade to either one in every of these versions. (Updated March thirteenth, 16:00 UTC) Microsoft IIS (Windows Server): Support for SSLv2 on the server aspect is enabled by default only on the OS versions that correspond to IIS 7.0 and IIS seven.5, particularly Windows scene, Windows Server 2008, Windows seven and Windows Server 2008R2. This support is disabled within the appropriate SSLv2 subkey for ‘Server’, as outlined in KB245030. albeit users haven’t taken the steps to disable SSLv2, the export-grade and 56-bit ciphers that build DROWN possible don’t seem to be supported by default.
Network Security Services (NSS): NSS may be a common science library designed into several server merchandise. NSS versions three.13 (released back in 2012) and higher than ought to have SSLv2 disabled by default. (A little variety of users might have enabled SSLv2 manually and can got to take steps to disable it.) Users of older versions ought to upgrade to a more moderen version. we tend to still advocate checking whether or not your non-public secret is exposed elsewhere Other affected software and in operation systems:
Instructions and data for: Apache, Postfix, Nginx, Debian, Red Hat
Browsers and other consumers: practical nothing practical that net browsers or different client computer code will do to stop DROWN. only server operators ar ready to take action to guard against the attack.
This Social Engineering scam involves an exchange of information that can benefit both the victim and the trickster. Scammers would make the prey believe that a fair exchange will be present between both sides, but in reality, only the fraudster stands to benefit, leaving the victim hanging on to nothing. An example of a Quid Pro Quo is a scammer pretending to be an IT support technician.
The con artist asks for the login credentials of the company’s computer saying that the company is going to receive technical support in return. Once the victim has provided the credentials, the scammer now has control over the company’s computer and may possibly load malware or steal personal information that can be a motive to commit identity theft.
"A quid pro quo attack (aka something for something” attack) is a variant of baiting. Instead of baiting a target with the promise of a good, a quid pro quo attack promises a service or a benefit based on the execution of a specific action." https://resources.infosecinstitute.com/topic/commonsocial- engineeringattacks/#:~: text=A%20quid%20pro%20quo%20attack,execution%20of%20a%20specific%20action.
what command-line parameter could you use to determine the type and version number of the web server?
C:\Users\moi>nmap -h | findstr " -sV" -sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
False positives are mislabeled security alerts, indicating there is a threat when in actuality, there isn’t. These false/non-malicious alerts (SIEM events) increase noise for already over-worked security teams and can include software bugs, poorly written software, or unrecognized network traffic.
False negatives are uncaught cyber threats — overlooked by security tooling because they’re dormant, highly sophisticated (i.e. file-less or capable of lateral movement) or the security infrastructure in place lacks the technological ability to detect these attacks.
In this attack KRACK is an acronym for Key Reinstallation Attack. KRACK may be a severe replay attack on Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol (WPA2), which secures your Wi-Fi connection. Hackers use KRACK to take advantage of a vulnerability in WPA2. When in close range of a possible victim, attackers can access and skim encrypted data using KRACK.
How KRACK WorksYour Wi-Fi client uses a four-way handshake when attempting to attach to a protected network. The handshake confirms that both the client — your smartphone, laptop, et cetera — and therefore the access point share the right credentials, usually a password for the network. This establishes the Pairwise passkey (PMK), which allows for encoding .Overall, this handshake procedure allows for quick logins and connections and sets up a replacement encryption key with each connection. this is often what keeps data secure on Wi-Fi connections, and every one protected Wi-Fi connections use the four-way handshake for security. This protocol is that the reason users are encouraged to use private or credential-protected Wi-Fi instead of public connections.KRACK affects the third step of the handshake, allowing the attacker to control and replay the WPA2 encryption key to trick it into installing a key already in use. When the key’s reinstalled, other parameters related to it — the incremental transmit packet number called the nonce and therefore the replay counter — are set to their original values.Rather than move to the fourth step within the four-way handshake, nonce resets still replay transmissions of the third step. This sets up the encryption protocol for attack, and counting on how the attackers replay the third-step transmissions, they will take down Wi-Fi security.
Why KRACK may be a ThreatThink of all the devices you employ that believe Wi-Fi. it isn’t almost laptops and smartphones; numerous smart devices now structure the web of Things (IoT). due to the vulnerability in WPA2, everything connected to Wi-Fi is in danger of being hacked or hijacked.Attackers using KRACK can gain access to usernames and passwords also as data stored on devices. Hackers can read emails and consider photos of transmitted data then use that information to blackmail users or sell it on the Dark Web.Theft of stored data requires more steps, like an HTTP content injection to load malware into the system. Hackers could conceivably take hold of any device used thereon Wi-Fi connection. Because the attacks require hackers to be on the brink of the target, these internet security threats could also cause physical security threats.On the opposite hand, the necessity to be in close proximity is that the only excellent news associated with KRACK, as meaning a widespread attack would be extremely difficult.Victims are specifically targeted. However, there are concerns that a experienced attacker could develop the talents to use HTTP content injection to load malware onto websites to make a more widespread affect.
Everyone is in danger from KRACK vulnerability. Patches are available for Windows and iOS devices, but a released patch for Android devices is currently in question (November 2017). There are issues with the discharge , and lots of question if all versions and devices are covered.The real problem is with routers and IoT devices. These devices aren’t updated as regularly as computer operating systems, and for several devices, security flaws got to be addressed on the manufacturing side. New devices should address KRACK, but the devices you have already got in your home probably aren’t protected.
The best protection against KRACK is to make sure any device connected to Wi-Fi is patched and updated with the newest firmware. that has checking together with your router’s manufacturer periodically to ascertain if patches are available.
The safest connection option may be a private VPN, especially when publicly spaces. If you would like a VPN for private use, avoid free options, as they need their own security problems and there’ll even be issues with HTTPs. Use a paid service offered by a trusted vendor like Kaspersky. Also, more modern networks use WPA3 for better security.Avoid using public Wi-Fi, albeit it’s password protection. That password is out there to almost anyone, which reduces the safety level considerably.All the widespread implications of KRACK and therefore the WPA2 vulnerability aren’t yet clear. what’s certain is that everybody who uses Wi-Fi is in danger and wishes to require precautions to guard their data and devices.
A honeypot may be a trap that an IT pro lays for a malicious hacker, hoping that they will interact with it during a way that gives useful intelligence. It’s one among the oldest security measures in IT, but beware: luring hackers onto your network, even on an isolated system, are often a dangerous game. honeypot may be a good starting place: “A honeypot may be a computer or computing system intended to mimic likely targets of cyberattacks.” Often a honeypot are going to be deliberately configured with known vulnerabilities in situation to form a more tempting or obvious target for attackers. A honeypot won’t contain production data or participate in legitimate traffic on your network — that’s how you’ll tell anything happening within it’s a results of an attack. If someone’s stopping by, they’re up to no good.
That definition covers a various array of systems, from bare-bones virtual machines that only offer a couple of vulnerable systems to ornately constructed fake networks spanning multiple servers. and therefore the goals of these who build honeypots can vary widely also , starting from defense thorough to academic research. additionally , there’s now an entire marketing category of deception technology that, while not meeting the strict definition of a honeypot, is certainly within the same family. But we’ll get thereto during a moment. honeypots aim to permit close analysis of how hackers do their dirty work. The team controlling the honeypot can watch the techniques hackers use to infiltrate systems, escalate privileges, and otherwise run amok through target networks. These sorts of honeypots are found out by security companies, academics, and government agencies looking to look at the threat landscape. Their creators could also be curious about learning what kind of attacks are out there, getting details on how specific sorts of attacks work, or maybe trying to lure a specific hackers within the hopes of tracing the attack back to its source. These systems are often inbuilt fully isolated lab environments, which ensures that any breaches don’t end in non-honeypot machines falling prey to attacks.
Production honeypots, on the opposite hand, are usually deployed in proximity to some organization’s production infrastructure, though measures are taken to isolate it the maximum amount as possible. These honeypots often serve both as bait to distract hackers who could also be trying to interrupt into that organization’s network, keeping them faraway from valuable data or services; they will also function a canary within the coalpit , indicating that attacks are underway and are a minimum of partially succeeding.
Infoga may be a tool gathering email accounts informations (ip,hostname,country,…) from completely different public supply (search engines, pgp key servers and shodan) and check if email was leaked using haveibeenpwned.com API. is a really simple tool, however very effective for the first stages of a penetration test or just to know the visibility of your company within the net.
DNS spoofing is a threat that copies the legitimate server destinations to divert the domain's traffic.
Ignorant these attacks, the users are redirected to malicious websites, which results in insensitive and personal data being leaked. It is a method of attack where your DNS server is tricked into saving a fake DNS entry. This will make the DNS server recall a fake site for you, thereby posing a threat to vital information stored on your server or computer.
The cache poisoning codes are often found in URLs sent through spam emails. These emails are sent to prompt users to click on the URL, which infects their computer. When the computer is poisoned, it will divert you to a fake IP address that looks like a real thing. This way, the threats are injected into your systems as well.
Different Stages of Attack of DNS Cache Poisoning:
- The attacker proceeds to send DNS queries to the DNS resolver, which forwards the Root/TLD authoritative DNS server request and awaits an answer.
- The attacker overloads the DNS with poisoned responses that contain several IP addresses of the malicious website. To be accepted by the DNS resolver, the attacker's response should match a port number and the query ID field before the DNS response. Also, the attackers can force its response to increasing their chance of success.
- If you are a legitimate user who queries this DNS resolver, you will get a poisoned response from the cache, and you will be automatically redirected to the malicious website.
In a session donation attack, the attacker donates their own session ID to the target user. In this
attack, the attacker first obtains a valid session ID by logging into a service and later feeds the same session ID to the target user. This session ID links a target user to the attacker's account page without disclosing any information to the victim. When the target user clicks on the link and enters the details (username, password, payment details, etc.) in a form, the entered
details are linked to the attacker's account. To initiate this attack, the attacker can send their session ID using techniques such as cross-site cooking, an MITM attack, and session fixation. A session donation attack involves the following steps.
Footprinting techniques are used to collect basic information about the target IoT and OT platforms to exploit them. Information collected through footprinting techniques ncludes IP address, hostname, ISP, device location, banner of the target IoT device, FCC ID information, certification granted to the device, etc. pg. 5052 ECHv11 manual https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FCC_mark An FCC ID is a unique identifier assigned to a device registered with the United States Federal Communications Commission. For legal sale of wireless deices in the US, manufacturers must:
· Have the device evaluated by an independent lab to ensure it conforms to FCC standards · Provide documentation to the FCC of the lab results · Provide User Manuals, Documentation, and Photos relating to the device · Digitally or physically label the device with the unique identifier provided by the FCC (upon approved application) The FCC gets its authourity from Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (47 CFR). FCC IDs are required for all wireless emitting devices sold in the USA. By searching an FCC ID, you can find details on the wireless operating frequency (including strength), photos of the device, user manuals for the device, and SAR reports on the wireless emissions